Thursday, 19 October 2017

General Private Hospitals in Early Townsville

Something quite interesting to come out of my research at the moment is just now many Townsville women in the early 1900s were setting up their own general private hospital - not just a lying-in hospital in their own home, but a general private hospital. 

It's always seemed as if the general consensus was that the doctors set up these hospitals and then employed nurses to manage and run them. What I am finding is that many of these women, who I assumed were just managing the place for a doctor, actually OWNED the private hospital. In some instances they purchased, or even had the property built, for that purpose. 

A few examples include: Mai Treacy, who purchased the 'Nestle' hospital in Fryer Street and renamed it the 'Lister'; Margaret Monaghan (pictured) who ran 'Tauntonia' Private Hospital in Walker Street; Madge Clements, who secured a property on Melton Hill to set up 'Ardlamont' Private Hospital; and and Eva Duman, who purchased a property with her sister Gladys to run 'Verwood' Private Hospital, in Hermit Park. 

The local doctors did attend patients/perform surgeries etc. at these hospitals, but they were not running them. This is exciting stuff for an historian!

This research is part of a book I am working on that will tell the remarkable stories of North Queensland's independent/private midwives who worked tirelessly in our communities between 1890 and 1940.

Wednesday, 20 September 2017

Anthony Ogden - a moral crusader dogged by controversy

Anthony Ogden was variously an iron-moulder, a journalist for the Townsville Daily Bulletin and Townsville Star, a Board Member of the Townsville Harbour Board, a Mayor of Townsville, a Member of Parliament, a union organiser and advocate for industrial rights, editor of the Townsville Labor newspaper – the Clarion, a methodist lay preacher, a temperance advocate, a career politician, and many other things besides. And he is definitely an interesting figure in Townsville’s history.
Anthony Ogden, mayor of Townsville from 1924-1927
Photo: CityLibraries Townsville Local History Collection
Born in Yorkshire in 1866, Ogden arrived in Queensland – at Cooktown – in 1884, when he was 18 years old. He married in Townsville in 1888 and he and wife Mary-Ann had seven children together. Ogden served as Mayor of Townsville from 1924-1927. 

Ogden Street, in the city, takes its name from this, at times, controversial character. In 1926 Flinders Lane was renamed Ogden Street. Alderman Ogden had long lobbied to have Flinders Lane cleared of its reported “slum-like conditions”. There were a lot of sub-standard buildings in Flinders Lane and many of these harboured illegal gambling dens and brothels, which Ogden wanted to stamp out.

Controversy seems to have followed Ogden everywhere
In 1912, when Alderman John Henry Tyack was appointed as Mayor of Townsville, Alderman Ogden vigorously opposed Tyack’s appointment as Mayor because although he was appointed by the Queensland Governor-in-Council - he wasn’t the majority choice of the Townsville Council. An election had been held but the council had failed to appoint a Mayor in the allotted timeframe, so the Governor had to act as an adjudicator to resolve indecision on the part of the Council. Tyack’s appointment caused a real storm within the council, and there was so much dissension, that at one meeting, the Town Clerk had organised for two police constables to be stationed at the entrance to the Town Hall, while two more were stationed inside the building.

Several aldermen refused to recognise Tyack’s appointment until they had seen the official Government Gazette. Alderman Ogden was the most vocal in his opposition to Tyack’s appointment as Mayor. He argued that until he had seen the Governor’s signature, then it was not official. Ogden was scathing about the appointment, arguing that:

“It was only by log-rolling and pulling strings that Alderman Tyack was appointed in any case. He was the nominee of a minority.”

After Ogden had stirred everyone up, one of the other aldermen asked Tyack to resign. Tyack’s response to this outburst was to promptly reply: “No hope!”.


A few years later Ogden came close to punching the Mayor – this time it was Alderman McClelland - at a council meeting in March 1916. On this occasion, before the meeting even began, Ogden was extremely worked up about an incident earlier in the day where the Mayor had apparently interfered in his business – by asking him not to take copies of the council minutes until they had been confirmed – which on this occasion they had not.  The banter went backwards and forwards for a while, until Alderman Ogden jumped up out of his chair and in a couple of strides had reached the Mayor. He went to strike the Mayor, but stopped, shaking his fist just inches from the Mayor’s face. Apparently the other aldermen shouted as one, “Stop man!” After this incident, the headline in the newspaper read: “Alderman Ogden in Les Darcy act”.


The previous month, Ogden had tried to have Dr Anton Breinl removed from his position as resident surgeon at the Townsville Hospital, on the grounds that he was an “enemy alien”. Breinl was foreign-born - Austrian - and at this time the First World War was raging in Europe. The Townsville Hospital Committee voted on the motion but it was easily defeated. Ogden then said that he would move a request be sent to the Federal Government to have Dr Breinl removed from the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine. It’s worth mentioning here that Dr Breinl had been in Townsville since January 1910, so it must have been galling to him to have been singled out in this way because of his nationality.


In 1931 Ogden was prosecuted for defamation. This was a rare occurrence in Townsville in those days. The judge presiding over the case said there hadn’t been a defamation case in the city for 10 years. Ogden found himself in court after he declared at a council meeting that a man named Don McInnes was a “systematic law breaker”. This was in regards to not having licensed the Hollywood Miniature Golf Links that his daughters ran. To be fair to McInnes on this one, the other miniature golf links had not applied for a license either. Never one to tread lightly, Ogden also accused McInnes of having bribed police so that his illegal gambling establishment – located in the basement at the back of his tobacconist shop in Flinders Street – would not be raided. Ogden defeated the defamation suit.


There's no doubt though, that the conservative sections of society thought Ogden was truly marvellous. The combined churches of Townsville lauded his efforts in trying to stamp out gambling, and praised his moral convictions generally. Perhaps by today’s standards, Anthony Ogden might be considered to be something of a fanatic. But what's undeniable, is that he never shied away from his convictions, and he worked absolutely diligently at everything he took on.

Monday, 7 August 2017

Postcards from "Somewhere in France" - Part Four

Following on from Part Three... It was late July before Bert sent another postcard to Jean. In the time between his postcard of 20 June 1916 and 30 July 1916, the battle of Fromelles had taken place. At Fromelles, more than 5,000 Australian soldiers were killed, wounded or taken prisoner in a single battle. It has been described as “the worst day in Australian military history”.

Postcard sent to Townsville from 'Somewhere in France', 30 July 1916.
Source: Private Collection of Trisha and Murray Fielding
Somewhere in France
On active service
July 30th 1916
Dear Jean,
Three letters and post card received from you today. Answering your letter first opportunity. Will be very busy for week or so. Pleased to hear all well at home. Ernie has arrived here. So far unable to get in touch with him. Doing my best. I think he has had his first taste of the square dinkum. Wonder how he likes it. No news much same old routine. Weather very choppy. Keep on smiling & writing. Best wishes & remembrance to all at home. With best wishes & fond love.
Your sincere and affectionate,

Bert noted that he would “be very busy for a week or so”. That statement probably turned out to be a gross underestimation. In August the 7th Field Ambulance were at Vadencourt, where they were overseeing a Corps Rest Station.  Lt. Col. Huxtable noted in the Unit Diary daily numbers of sick and wounded, which numbered up to almost 600 per day. Three of their own men were killed, or died from wounds received while carrying out their duties, and many others were wounded.

The work of a stretcher bearer at this time was both arduous and hazardous. The task of retreiving mangled men from the mud and mire of the battlefield was a ceaseless job that required great bravery. It was often carried out under heavy shell fire, sometimes in the dark; it was slippery, dirty, dangerous, phsyically exhausting and mentally harrowing work. On 15 August, Huxtable noted that ten men from the unit had been recommended for recognition for their bravery in connection with their work as stretcher bearers “during recent heavy fighting during the attack on the Pozieres ridge by 2nd Aust. Div.”.

Australian stretcher bearers carrying a white flag, passing the old cemetery at Pozieres.
Source: Australian War Memorial
This firsthand account, from the diary of Edward Charles Munro, a stretcher bearer with the 5th Australian Field Ambulance, dated 25 August 1916, recalls stretcher bearers working under fire:

Some of the 7th Field Ambulance bearers had to carry in a very exposed position near the front line and one went ahead carrying a white flag. When they were advancing in the open, Fritz shelled them and hit seven. I saw the diminished party returning with the white flag still aloft while the shells were bursting all around. While I was watching them a shell burst nearby and scattered them, some being seriously wounded.[1] 

On 22 August, the 7th Field Ambulance were in Becourt Wood. From here, members of the Unit were sent to relieve at Chalk Pit advanced dressing station, close to the front line at Pozieres. On 26 August, Huxtable wrote that:

63 bearers of the 7th Field Amb. were sent to Chalk Pit A.D.S. to relieve bearers of the 6th Field Amb. who are to be withdrawn to Becourt, as they have now been 13 days continuous duty carrying to Chalk Pit A.D.S. and are now more or less exhausted.

The Unit Diary of the 7th Field Ambulance shows that between 22 and 28 August, 1016 sick or wounded men passed through the Advanced Dressing Station at Becourt.

Celluloid postcard, with fabric pansy and grass seeds, 1916. Note how Bert has written his initial underneath the words “My thoughts abide with you”.
 Source: Private Collection of Trisha and Murray Fielding.
19. 9. 1916
Dear Jean,
Yours of 30th July to hand today. Pleased to hear all well as yours truly is at present. Letter at early date from yours always. B.

By the time of writing this postcard, Bert’s unit was billeted in Reninghelst, in the Belgian province of West Flanders. Four months elapsed before Bert sent another postcard to Jean, although it is difficult to say whether there was a genuine break in correspondence, or whether some of the postcards Bert sent to Jean have been lost in the intervening century.  

In December, the 7th Field Ambulance was at Bernafay Wood and Bert’s next postcard, sent in January 1917, was again brief.

"The King at the Front". Outside a captured German dugout.
Postcard dated 15 January 1917.
Source: Private Collection of Trisha and Murray Fielding.
15 January 1917
Dear Jean,
No word from you for some time. Hope you had a merry Xmas not like yours truly had. Letter follows first opportunity. Best wishes & remembrance to all. 
Love B.

For the first time in any of his correspondence to Jean, he sounds a little despondent. He alludes to the fact that Christmas was not a happy time for him, and indeed, the 7th Field Ambulance’s unit diary shows that there was no break from work on Christmas Day. Another long absence of correspondence follows, with the next postcard not sent until early September 1917. (This will be pictured in Part Five)

[1] Australian War Memorial

Tuesday, 27 June 2017

Duncragan - a house with a big history

A Townsville property that continues to pop up time and again in my research, and in surprising places, is Duncragan.[1] So I thought it was time I wrote something about it, and the many different functions it has fulfilled over the years. Situated in Cleveland Terrace, on Melton Hill, adjacent to the old Supreme Court building, Duncragan was built around 1917 for William Duncan, managing director of Messrs Brand and Dryborough’s Cleveland Foundry.
Duncragan, Melton Hill, Townsville, 1960s.
Photo: University College of Townsville Handbook.
It was described by the Townsville Daily Bulletin at one time as “one of the most commodious residential buildings in Townsville, with a panoramic view unexcelled anywhere, from all points of the compass.” [2]  The home was large and spacious, with four bedrooms plus a maid’s bedroom, a lounge room with a skylight, a large living room, a billiards room and a lookout turret. The house was surrounded on three sides by 12ft-wide verandahs.

Duncragan's floor plan at the time of the State Government's purchase of the house from the Misses Duncan. Note the location of the former turret, indicated lower left-hand corner.
Source: Queensland State Archives.

World War II
According to Peter Dunn’s website, during World War II Duncragan was “commandeered by the US Army and used as a private residence for at least one US General”. Stories exist about the parties held there in those years, and according to one report, American officers used to dance on the billiard table![3] It was during WWII that the house’s turret was taken down.

Maternal and Child Welfare Home
In November 1949, William Duncan’s daughters – Olive Duncan and Nita Duncan – sold the property to the State Government for £10,000.[4] The government wanted to convert the property for use as a Maternal and Child Welfare Home. It had been canvassing properties in Townsville since the mid-1940s but had not found anything suitable until Duncragan was offered for sale. In June 1950, the government declared the land as a Reserve for Health (Maternal and Child Welfare) Purposes.[5] 1n 1951 the government proceeded to plan alterations and additions to the property that would “add to the efficiency and convenience of the home”.

The work encompassed conversion of the main building to provide an infants’ nursery, a toddlers’ nursery, bedrooms for mothers, sitting and dining rooms, various specialised kitchens, a sun room, a toddlers’ play area, and a trainee lecture room. Outbuildings were converted into modern laundry facilities. Plans also included a new annexe that provided a suite for the Matron, six bedrooms for Sisters, sitting room for the Sisters, a kitchenette and other general amenities.[6] It was important that the facility have a “homelike and bright appearance” as the mothers who would be staying there were not ill. Every care was taken with furnishings and fittings, with most pieces made from silky oak timber - stained walnut - and “all linoleums to be green inlay jasper or marble – not plain brown”.

The overall purpose of the Maternal and Child Welfare Homes were to provide specialised care for infants with an intellectual disability, without removing the child from its mother. But at the same time as planning for the improvements was progressing, the Hospital Board in Townsville requested that Duncragan be made available for the accommodation of nursing staff of the Townsville General Hospital. The need was intended to be temporary, while new Nurses’ Quarters were completed at the hospital.[7]

Nurses Quarters
In February 1954, it was announced that Duncragan would be used as temporary nurses’ quarters.[8] In December, the Townsville Daily Bulletin reported on a Christmas function held there.

“Duncragon, the nurses’ quarters at Melton Hill, was the venue for the gaieties… guests including ships’ personnel from the Paringa and Ribera, members of the Surf Life Saving clubs and RAAF. A special guest was Matron E. McCarthy, who wished all the joys of Christmas and New Year. There was dancing until midnight to orchestral music supplied by a trio of nurses and to add to the social enjoyment small tables and chairs were set up for conversation in a garden setting of sloping lawns. Some very special and delicious dainties were submitted for supper which was served buffet-style.”[9]

University students, outside Duncragan, 1960s.
Photo: University College of Townsville Handbook.

University Student Accommodation
In 1961 Duncragan became a hostel for female university students. The North Queensland University Association, through an appeal to the people of North Queensland, established two Halls of Residence in Townsville for male and female students of the University College of Townsville (later James Cook University).[10] Duncragan was used to accommodate 22 women, in “agreeably furnished single and double rooms”. Full board at the Halls of Residence cost £6 per week, and at Duncragan a “simply but adequately furnished common room” with a “very attractive panoramic view” was provided for recreational purposes. [11] 

[1] There seem to be many variations on the spelling of this house – variously Duncragan, Duncraigen, Duncragen, Duncragon.
[2]  Townsville Daily Bulletin, 13 February 1954, p. 2
[3] ‘Melton Hill’s Duncraigan’, ABC North Queensland radio broadcast, 3 August 2010.
[4] Letter to the Public Curator, dated 11 May 1949, which included a contract to sell the property, signed by Olive Duncan on behalf of herself and her sister Nita Duncan. Held by Queensland State Archives; see also Memorandum from Assistant Supervisor of Works to Department of Public Works dated 11 November 1949, held by Queensland State Archives.
[5] Queensland Government Gazette, 24 June 1950, p. 3082.
[6] Memorandum from Acting Chief Architect to Department of Public Works, dated 27 June 1952, held by Queensland State Archives.
[7] Letter from Secretary of Hospitals Board, Townsville to Under Secretary, Department of Health and Home Affairs, dated 20 June 1952, held by Queensland State Archives.
[8] Townsville Daily Bulletin, 13 February 1954, p. 2.
[9] Townsville Daily Bulletin, 27 December 1954, p. 5.
[10] The other property was Stuart House, in Wulguru, which could accommodate 66 men; while Olsen House, in Stagpole Street, West End, was established in 1963 and accommodated 38 men. University College of Townsville Handbook, 1965.
[11] University College of Townsville Handbook, 1965.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Establishment of the Cairns Baby Clinic

Cairns Baby Clinic, corner of Florence and Martyn Streets, Cairns, c. 1930.
Photo: Queensland State Archives
In September 1920, Florence Chatfield visited the city of Cairns to make preliminary arrangements for the establishment of a Baby Clinic there. It was during the 1920s that the Queensland Government began building state-run baby clinics in regional Queensland cities, in an effort to try to improve the life expectancy of its youngest citizens. It was hoped that educating mothers about the care of their infants using a standardised system of advice and instruction would help to reduce the infant mortality rate. The government was responding to pressure from a growing nationwide movement, now known as the Infant Welfare Movement.

Nurse Chatfield, who was the Supervisor of the Baby Clinics in Queensland, held two meetings while in Cairns. She spoke to a group of mothers about the potential uses of the clinic; and held a meeting for a general audience (which was no doubt attended by local doctors and nurses as well) where she outlined the scope and objectives of the work of the clinics that were at that time operating in Brisbane. 
Nurse Florence Chatfield.
Photo: State Library of Queensland.
Nurse Chatfield also took a tour of the city, and decided that the Baby Clinic should be sited somewhere in the vicinity of Bunda Street, in order to best serve “the working population” who were located in the area. She was somewhat concerned about the lack of rental accommodation for potential clinic nurses though, so she scouted for cottages that were for sale. Finding that cottages which had the necessary five or six rooms were priced around £900 to £1200 (a sum she considered “prohibitive”, given the need to also pay for alterations to fit them out as a dedicated clinic) she began looking for suitable land.[1]

With the help of the Mayor, Alderman J.G. Hoare, Nurse Chatfield inspected a Railway Reserve which was near Bunda Street, and together they decided that the Home Secretary should be asked to excise a small corner of this Reserve to build a cottage for a Baby Clinic. An area of 23.5 perches (594.3 sq m) at the corner of Florence and Martyn Streets, was eventually excised and officially proclaimed as a “Reserve for Baby Clinic” in March 1924.

Reserve for Baby Clinic (R.613), excised from Railway Reserve  R.280
Queensland State Archives
Most of the regional Queensland clinics were built to a standardised design and built by the Department of Works but the standard design was considered unsuitable for Cairns. There were two reasons for this. First, the tropical climate in Cairns needed to be considered, so the Department of Works designed a timber building set on low stumps, with wrap-around verandahs that were designed to ensure a cool interior. The second reason appears to be that given the “difficulty for a nurse to secure suitable board and residence at reasonable cost”, the building design should include living quarters for a nurse to live on site. When the plans were drawn up, this second consideration seems to have been deemed of little importance, as the original 1923 plans show no living quarters.  

The Cairns Baby Clinic opened to the public on Monday, 7 January 1924, under the care of Sister Mee.[2] Sister Mee was described by the Northern Herald as “a fully qualified nursing practitioner, having considerable experience in Brisbane”.[3] The clinic was open from 9am to 5pm on weekdays, and from 9am to 12pm on Saturdays, with a doctor in attendance on Fridays.[4]
Plans for improvements to the Cairns Baby Clinic, 1924.
Queensland State Archives
By late February the clinic was under the management of Nurse Martin,[5] who soon requested that some improvements be made to the building. These included installing louvres to the side verandah, adding a louvred room at the back of the building, and installing a bathroom.[6] Florence Chatfield wrote to the Home Secretary requesting the improvements, but despite the obvious need for basic facilities to be supplied to the staff of the Clinic, the wheels of government were slow. Very slow.

In September 1926, Dr Alfred Jefferis Turner, the Director of the Maternal and Child Welfare Department, took up their cause. He wrote to the Assistant Under Secretary of the Home Department, stating that the nurse at the Cairns Baby Clinic had been supplied with a bathtub, but that it had not been installed, and was in fact, still lying “upside down on the floor of the clinic”.  He stressed that she had been promised a bathroom and a louvred sleeping room on the verandah.[7]

“This nurse is working very hard in a hot climate (133 visits on foot last July in addition to indoor work), and I think she should be provided with reasonable comfort,” Dr Turner wrote.[8]

It’s hard not to want to cheer for Dr Turner for his tenacity and for his belief in the work of the clinic nurses. Nurse Martin finally got her bathtub sometime in the first half of 1927, three years after she first asked for it![9]

Dr Alfred Jefferis Turner.
Photo: State Library of Queensland.

Baby Clinic was well patronised
In March 1926, the Cairns Post reported that between 300 and 500 babies were being seen at the clinic each month:

“This splendid little Government institution is quietly but efficiently doing much to help the great scheme along, of building up a nation of healthy and robust men and women, by giving the wee babies a chance from earliest infancy of being physically well and fit… The great aim of the clinic is to prevent ailment, by examining babies, advising the mothers and prescribing the treatment best suited to each little creature. Mothers are encouraged to bring along the little ones before illness, not after.”[10]

The Cairns Baby Clinic existed at the Martyn Street site until 1955, when the service moved into a new building located in Anzac Memorial Park.

[1] Letter from F. Chatfield to Under Secretary re Cairns visit, dated 18 October 1928, Queensland State Archives (QSA)
[2] Cairns Post 8 January 1924, p. 4
[3] The Northern Herald, 9 January 1924, p. 18
[4] Ibid
[5] Cairns Post 26 February 1924, p. 3
[6] Letter from F. Chatfield regarding Nurse Martin’s requests, dated 28 March 1924, QSA.
[7] Letter from Dr A.J. Turner regarding bath tub not installed, dated 3 September 1926, QSA
[8] Ibid
[9] Letter from Under Secretary and Director of Public Works, dated 12 January 1927. Relevant here is the handwritten notation: “Carry out these works” dated 8.2.27. QSA
[10] Cairns Post, 13 March 1926, p. 12